Posts Tagged ‘view’

An interior view for the Paris environment seminar: Implications for company

March 15th, 2016

An internal view associated with the Paris environment seminar: Implications for company
Event on 2016-04-06 12:00:00
An inside view of Paris environment seminar: Implications for business Featuring Sanjay Patnaik   Initiative for international Environmental Leadership (IGEL) Wednesday, April 6, 2016 12:00-1:15 pm F 60 Jon M. Huntsman Hall The Wharton course, University of Pennsylvania 3730 Walnut Street Philadelphia party Overview:  Senior IGEL other Sanjay Patnaik went to the UN Paris environment conference in December 2015 within an observer delegation. Within information system he can point out their experience within meeting, share tips from sessions he attended with world leaders and provide an internal view into some of the important aspects of international climate negotiations. He can especially pay attention to the aftereffects of this Paris environment agreement for business leaders, organizations and investors and talk about the element of carbon rates in handling environment modification. Sanjay Patnaik is a Senior IGEL Fellow at Wharton and an assistant teacher inside Department of Strategic control and Public plan on George Washington University class of company in Washington, D.C. Sanjay obtained his doctorate running a business administration (technique) from Harvard company class in 2012 and his primary study and training passions function yet others non-market technique, environment change, international strategy, environmental legislation and worldwide governmental economy. Prior to the conclusion of their doctoral studies at Harvard company class (2007-2012), he worked in investment banking and academia. He also holds a master’s degree operating economics and computer system technology and a master’s degree functioning manufacturing and computer system technology, both from Vienna University of tech in Austria. Region: The seminar is supposed to be held at Wharton class, University of Pennsylvania, in Jon M. Huntsman Hall, at 3730 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA. View instructions to Jon M. Huntsman Hall. For extra information on parking and just how to-arrive into University of Pennsylvania, just click here.

at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States Of America
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Usa
Philadelphia, Usa Of America

Washington | Posted by Victoria Addington

Kindle Paperwhite 2 Comics Review – Kindle Panel View

July 23rd, 2014

Written Review: http://blog.the-ebook-reader.com/2013/11/03/kindle-paperwhite-2-comics-review-with-kindle-panel-view-video/ This video shows a comic on the K…


Amazing Videos

Feeds | Posted by admin

Hotel Madera NW View

May 10th, 2014

Some cool Hotel in Washington images:

Hotel Madera NW View
Hotel in Washington
Image by Mr.TinDC
View from tenth-floor room of the Hotel Madera, at 1310 New Hampshire Avenue NW, in Washington, DC. This is looking northwest, with the National Cathedral visible at upper right.

Scott Wily and Eddy Hoffman of Vital Remains
Hotel in Washington
Image by Metal Chris
Scott Wily and Eddy Hoffman playing with Vital Remains on Sunday 21 November 2010 at the Rock & Roll Hotel in Washington, DC. I wrote a full review of this concert with pics and videos on my blog here: DCHeavyMetal.com/2010/11/25/Review-Of-Cannibal-Corpse-Gig…

Lamp
Hotel in Washington
Image by ChristopherTitzer
Designer lamp in the lobby.

Washington | Posted by admin

Q&A: Verizon center? Washington DC. Good view?

April 1st, 2014

Question by Lilly: Verizon center? Washington DC. Good view?
Me, my sister and my cousin are going to a One Direction concert in 2013.

The Concert will be at the Verizon center.

In the Verizon center Is there good views every where?

We will be at section 217 row L.

Have you ever sat there? is it a good view?

Best answer:

Answer by EMTP_EJ
I have been to the Verizon Center for concerts. That section is pretty close, distance-wise but off to one side and in the second level up above the floor (the highest is the third level). These days, the sound is so loud and most groups have large video screens so if you’re not on the floor, it probably doesn’t matter too much where you are. see links You’ll be looking down and to your right to see the stage.
The second link should take you to a 3D view of the sports arena, but they usually put the stage where the risers are, coming up from the floor. Oh, and row L is the last row in that section, I think.

Know better? Leave your own answer in the comments!

Music | Posted by admin

Nurturing Women’s Leadership: An Intimate View from the Hebrew Bible

December 20th, 2013

Nurturing Women’s Leadership: An Intimate View from the Hebrew Bible
Event on 2014-02-18 14:00:00
Dr. Erica Brown (Greater Washington Jewish Federation) is the author of 8 books including Happier Endings: A Meditation on Life and Death, Inspired Jewish Leadership, a National Jewish Book Award finalist, Spiritual Boredom, and the forthcoming Leadership

at Florida Intl University Pharmed Arena
11200 SW 8th St
Miami, United States

Washington | Posted by admin

Southwestern View of the District of Columbia from the Washington Monument

December 7th, 2013

A few nice Washington Monument images I found:

Southwestern View of the District of Columbia from the Washington Monument
Washington Monument
Image by Cornell University Library
Collection: A. D. White Architectural Photographs, Cornell University Library
Accession Number: 15/5/3090.00593

Title: Southwestern View of the District of Columbia from the Washington Monument

Architect: John Russell Pope (American, 1874-1937)

Photograph date: ca. 1942

Location: North and Central America: United States; District of Columbia, Washington

Materials: gelatin silver print

Image: 7 1/2 x 9 3/8 in.; 19.05 x 23.8125 cm

Provenance: Transfer from the College of Architecture, Art and Planning

Persistent URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1813.001/5sqj

There are no known U.S. copyright restrictions on this image. The digital file is owned by the Cornell University Library which is making it freely available with the request that, when possible, the Library be credited as its source.

We had some help with the geocoding from Web Services by Yahoo!

Southern View of the District of Columbia from the Washington Monument
Washington Monument
Image by Cornell University Library
Collection: A. D. White Architectural Photographs, Cornell University Library
Accession Number: 15/5/3090.00595

Title: Southern View of the District of Columbia from the Washington Monument

Architect: John Russell Pope (American, 1874-1937)

Photograph date: ca. 1942

Location: North and Central America: United States; District of Columbia, Washington

Materials: gelatin silver print

Image: 7 1/2 x 9 3/8 in.; 19.05 x 23.8125 cm

Provenance: Transfer from the College of Architecture, Art and Planning

Persistent URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1813.001/5sqm

There are no known U.S. copyright restrictions on this image. The digital file is owned by the Cornell University Library which is making it freely available with the request that, when possible, the Library be credited as its source.

We had some help with the geocoding from Web Services by Yahoo!

Washington – White House from Washington Monument
Washington Monument
Image by roger4336
The White House, looking north from the Washington Monument in 1968, The White House has been the official residence of the U.S. President since 1801. It was built in 1792-1800. It was burned by the British army in the War of 1812, mostly rebuilt by 1817, and expanded in the 1820s. The West Wing (left) and East Wing were built around 1901 and 1927, respectively. They have been expanded since then.

President Truman famously added the balcony to the south portico in 1947. The White House was gutted, given a new framework, and rebuilt over several years, beginning in 1948.

Washington | Posted by admin

TRAFFIC SAFETY – Traffic Safety – Mountain View

October 26th, 2013

TRAFFIC SAFETY – Traffic Safety – Mountain View
Event on 2013-11-12 00:00:00

Ages 15+: Traffic Safety Education has been offered in the Evergreen School District for over 30 years. This course meets and exceeds the requirements set by the State of Washington regarding Traffic Safety programs. It will be offered in several different formats, but the state requirement of 30 hours classroom, 6 hours of drive time and 12 hours of observation will always be met. Our instructors all are state certified TSE instructors and together they have over 100 years of Driver Education teaching experience. The course will consist of 9 learning units. Students will progress from simple tasks to more complex traffic, with the emphasis being on making safe decisions. The course format will be in-class activities, with a final test over the Washington Drivers Guide at the end of the course. The driving section will consist of 12 – 30 minute lessons. They will start with basic control and end with complex freeway driving.

IN ORDER TO OBTAIN YOUR PERMIT, YOU HAVE 2 OPTIONS:

1.  Go in person to the Department of Licensing Office with a picture ID, and your parent or guardian with their picture ID and your birth certificate or current passport.  They will then assign you a Personal Identification Code (PIC) 12 alpha numeric characters.  Example  RECORT*061PA

You will then need to email your full last, first, middle name, the (PIC) code, class and school you will be taking the class to michael.mcdonald@evergreenps.org so that your code can entered.  A return email will be sent to you informing you that the information has been entered into the Department of Licensing computer base and you can then go and pay for your permit 10 days before the first day of class.

 

2.  Pleas go to the Department of Licensing website and follow the steps for gettiing your Lerners Permit.  Once you get your Personal Identification Code (PIC) 12 alpha numeric characters.  Example RECOT*061PA, you will then need to email your full last, first, middle name and the PIC code to michael.mcdonald@evergreenps.org so that your code can entered.  A return email will be sent to you informing you that the information has been entered into the Department of Licensing computer base and you can then go and pay for your permit 10 days before the first day of class.

 

at Mountain View High School
1500 SE BLAIRMONT DR
Vancouver, United States

Washington | Posted by admin

Last Day to View Fryd on Fire

September 23rd, 2013

Last Day to View Fryd on Fire
Event on 2013-10-13 10:00:00
Organization
Jewish Museum of Florida

Primary Category
Art Exhibitions

Extras
The tropical mystique animates the fertile imagination of Carol Fryd, whose captivating artworks of Miami and its cultural intersections meld the human figure with fabulous flora and fruit. Her varied techniques combine digital art, collage, drawings, photography, objects and paint to produce ground breaking work, ranging from realism to abstract expressionism to portraiture. But it is the combination of bright, fiery colors that dominant the works in this show. A native Floridian who moved to Miami Beach at age two, Fryd is inspired by her hometown and its colorful palette of people and panorama. The excitement and hot juicy hues of Fryd's works are matched only by the intensity and heat of the Miami sun. Fryd on Fire exhibition runs through October 13.

Place
Jewish Museum of Florida

Address
301 Washington Avenue
Miami Beach, FL 33139

Ticket Cost
.00 – .00

Seating Information
Open daily 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. except Mondays, civil and Jewish holidays. Admission: Adults ; Seniors ; Families ; Members and children under 6 always Free; Saturdays Free.

Contact Phone
305-672-5044

at The Jewish Museum Of Florida
301 Washington Avenue
Miami Beach, United States

Washington | Posted by admin

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird aft-starboard view

August 21st, 2013

A few nice Flight to Washington images I found:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird aft-starboard view
Flight to Washington
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

Long Description:
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71 Blackbird. It is the fastest aircraft propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War. The airplane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis in the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed accurate assessments of Soviet worldwide military deployments, particularly near the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance aircraft was an able platform but the U. S. Air Force recognized that this relatively slow aircraft was already vulnerable to Soviet interceptors. They also understood that the rapid development of surface-to-air missile systems could put U-2 pilots at grave risk. The danger proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to air missile over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s first proposal for a new high speed, high altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, to be capable of avoiding interceptors and missiles, centered on a design propelled by liquid hydrogen. This proved to be impracticable because of considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed then reconfigured the design for conventional fuels. This was feasible and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), already flying the Lockheed U-2, issued a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Works’ division (headed by the gifted design engineer Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) designed the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and fly well above 18,288 m (60,000 feet). To meet these challenging requirements, Lockheed engineers overcame many daunting technical challenges. Flying more than three times the speed of sound generates 316° C (600° F) temperatures on external aircraft surfaces, which are enough to melt conventional aluminum airframes. The design team chose to make the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two conventional, but very powerful, afterburning turbine engines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power plants had to operate across a huge speed envelope in flight, from a takeoff speed of 334 kph (207 mph) to more than 3,540 kph (2,200 mph). To prevent supersonic shock waves from moving inside the engine intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s team had to design a complex air intake and bypass system for the engines.

Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to achieve this by carefully shaping the airframe to reflect as little transmitted radar energy (radio waves) as possible, and by application of special paint designed to absorb, rather than reflect, those waves. This treatment became one of the first applications of stealth technology, but it never completely met the design goals.

Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi trials. The airplane showed great promise but it needed considerable technical refinement before the CIA could fly the first operational sortie on May 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated as part of the Air Force’s 1129th Special Activities Squadron under the "Oxcart" program. While Lockheed continued to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor version of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system evolved into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a special two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s were modified to carry a special reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were designed to take off with the D-21 drone, powered by a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon between the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds high enough to ignite the drone’s ramjet motor. Lockheed also built three YF-12As but this type never went into production. Two of the YF-12As crashed during testing. Only one survives and is on display at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft section of one of the "written off" YF-12As which was later used along with an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the sole SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C and two SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. The first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Because of extreme operational costs, military strategists decided that the more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. These were retired in 1968 after only one year of operational missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air Force’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (part of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) took over the missions, flying the SR-71 beginning in the spring of 1968.

After the Air Force began to operate the SR-71, it acquired the official name Blackbird– for the special black paint that covered the airplane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate some of the tremendous airframe heat generated by air friction, and to camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at high altitudes.

Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 safely required two crew members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated with the wide array of monitoring and defensive systems installed on the airplane. This equipment included a sophisticated Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system that could jam most acquisition and targeting radar. In addition to an array of advanced, high-resolution cameras, the aircraft could also carry equipment designed to record the strength, frequency, and wavelength of signals emitted by communications and sensor devices such as radar. The SR-71 was designed to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and high altitude. It could operate safely at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth. The crew had to wear pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts. These suits were required to protect the crew in the event of sudden cabin pressure loss while at operating altitudes.

To climb and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 engines were designed to operate continuously in afterburner. While this would appear to dictate high fuel flows, the Blackbird actually achieved its best "gas mileage," in terms of air nautical miles per pound of fuel burned, during the Mach 3+ cruise. A typical Blackbird reconnaissance flight might require several aerial refueling operations from an airborne tanker. Each time the SR-71 refueled, the crew had to descend to the tanker’s altitude, usually about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the airplane to subsonic speeds. As velocity decreased, so did frictional heat. This cooling effect caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink considerably, and those covering the fuel tanks contracted so much that fuel leaked, forming a distinctive vapor trail as the tanker topped off the Blackbird. As soon as the tanks were filled, the jet’s crew disconnected from the tanker, relit the afterburners, and again climbed to high altitude.

Air Force pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its operational career but other bases hosted Blackbird operations, too. The 9th SRW occasionally deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other locations to carryout operational missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 did not begin to operate in Europe until 1974, and then only temporarily. In 1982, when the U.S. Air Force based two aircraft at Royal Air Force Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring mission in Eastern Europe.

When the SR-71 became operational, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had already replaced manned aircraft to gather intelligence from sites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird remained a vital tool for global intelligence gathering. On many occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 provided information that proved vital in formulating successful U. S. foreign policy. Blackbird crews provided important intelligence about the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid conducted by American air forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews flew a number of missions over the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile batteries that threatened commercial shipping and American escort vessels.

As the performance of space-based surveillance systems grew, along with the effectiveness of ground-based air defense networks, the Air Force started to lose enthusiasm for the expensive program and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 operations in January 1990. Despite protests by military leaders, Congress revived the program in 1995. Continued wrangling over operating budgets, however, soon led to final termination. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration retained two SR-71As and the one SR-71B for high-speed research projects and flew these airplanes until 1999.

On March 6, 1990, the service career of one Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird ended with a record-setting flight. This special airplane bore Air Force serial number 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding and his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this aircraft from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion of the flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of flight time in Blackbirds, more than that of any other crewman.

This particular SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, a former National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections Management. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air Force Base, Okinawa, Alison logged more than a dozen ‘972 operational sorties. The aircraft spent twenty-four years in active Air Force service and accrued a total of 2,801.1 hours of flight time.

Wingspan: 55’7"
Length: 107’5"
Height: 18’6"
Weight: 170,000 Lbs

Reference and Further Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and Space Museum.

DAD, 11-11-01

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird top view panorama
Flight to Washington
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

Long Description:
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71 Blackbird. It is the fastest aircraft propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War. The airplane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis in the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed accurate assessments of Soviet worldwide military deployments, particularly near the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance aircraft was an able platform but the U. S. Air Force recognized that this relatively slow aircraft was already vulnerable to Soviet interceptors. They also understood that the rapid development of surface-to-air missile systems could put U-2 pilots at grave risk. The danger proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to air missile over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s first proposal for a new high speed, high altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, to be capable of avoiding interceptors and missiles, centered on a design propelled by liquid hydrogen. This proved to be impracticable because of considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed then reconfigured the design for conventional fuels. This was feasible and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), already flying the Lockheed U-2, issued a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Works’ division (headed by the gifted design engineer Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) designed the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and fly well above 18,288 m (60,000 feet). To meet these challenging requirements, Lockheed engineers overcame many daunting technical challenges. Flying more than three times the speed of sound generates 316° C (600° F) temperatures on external aircraft surfaces, which are enough to melt conventional aluminum airframes. The design team chose to make the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two conventional, but very powerful, afterburning turbine engines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power plants had to operate across a huge speed envelope in flight, from a takeoff speed of 334 kph (207 mph) to more than 3,540 kph (2,200 mph). To prevent supersonic shock waves from moving inside the engine intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s team had to design a complex air intake and bypass system for the engines.

Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to achieve this by carefully shaping the airframe to reflect as little transmitted radar energy (radio waves) as possible, and by application of special paint designed to absorb, rather than reflect, those waves. This treatment became one of the first applications of stealth technology, but it never completely met the design goals.

Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi trials. The airplane showed great promise but it needed considerable technical refinement before the CIA could fly the first operational sortie on May 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated as part of the Air Force’s 1129th Special Activities Squadron under the "Oxcart" program. While Lockheed continued to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor version of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system evolved into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a special two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s were modified to carry a special reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were designed to take off with the D-21 drone, powered by a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon between the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds high enough to ignite the drone’s ramjet motor. Lockheed also built three YF-12As but this type never went into production. Two of the YF-12As crashed during testing. Only one survives and is on display at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft section of one of the "written off" YF-12As which was later used along with an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the sole SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C and two SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. The first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Because of extreme operational costs, military strategists decided that the more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. These were retired in 1968 after only one year of operational missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air Force’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (part of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) took over the missions, flying the SR-71 beginning in the spring of 1968.

After the Air Force began to operate the SR-71, it acquired the official name Blackbird– for the special black paint that covered the airplane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate some of the tremendous airframe heat generated by air friction, and to camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at high altitudes.

Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 safely required two crew members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated with the wide array of monitoring and defensive systems installed on the airplane. This equipment included a sophisticated Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system that could jam most acquisition and targeting radar. In addition to an array of advanced, high-resolution cameras, the aircraft could also carry equipment designed to record the strength, frequency, and wavelength of signals emitted by communications and sensor devices such as radar. The SR-71 was designed to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and high altitude. It could operate safely at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth. The crew had to wear pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts. These suits were required to protect the crew in the event of sudden cabin pressure loss while at operating altitudes.

To climb and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 engines were designed to operate continuously in afterburner. While this would appear to dictate high fuel flows, the Blackbird actually achieved its best "gas mileage," in terms of air nautical miles per pound of fuel burned, during the Mach 3+ cruise. A typical Blackbird reconnaissance flight might require several aerial refueling operations from an airborne tanker. Each time the SR-71 refueled, the crew had to descend to the tanker’s altitude, usually about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the airplane to subsonic speeds. As velocity decreased, so did frictional heat. This cooling effect caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink considerably, and those covering the fuel tanks contracted so much that fuel leaked, forming a distinctive vapor trail as the tanker topped off the Blackbird. As soon as the tanks were filled, the jet’s crew disconnected from the tanker, relit the afterburners, and again climbed to high altitude.

Air Force pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its operational career but other bases hosted Blackbird operations, too. The 9th SRW occasionally deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other locations to carryout operational missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 did not begin to operate in Europe until 1974, and then only temporarily. In 1982, when the U.S. Air Force based two aircraft at Royal Air Force Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring mission in Eastern Europe.

When the SR-71 became operational, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had already replaced manned aircraft to gather intelligence from sites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird remained a vital tool for global intelligence gathering. On many occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 provided information that proved vital in formulating successful U. S. foreign policy. Blackbird crews provided important intelligence about the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid conducted by American air forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews flew a number of missions over the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile batteries that threatened commercial shipping and American escort vessels.

As the performance of space-based surveillance systems grew, along with the effectiveness of ground-based air defense networks, the Air Force started to lose enthusiasm for the expensive program and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 operations in January 1990. Despite protests by military leaders, Congress revived the program in 1995. Continued wrangling over operating budgets, however, soon led to final termination. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration retained two SR-71As and the one SR-71B for high-speed research projects and flew these airplanes until 1999.

On March 6, 1990, the service career of one Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird ended with a record-setting flight. This special airplane bore Air Force serial number 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding and his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this aircraft from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion of the flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of flight time in Blackbirds, more than that of any other crewman.

This particular SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, a former National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections Management. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air Force Base, Okinawa, Alison logged more than a dozen ‘972 operational sorties. The aircraft spent twenty-four years in active Air Force service and accrued a total of 2,801.1 hours of flight time.

Wingspan: 55’7"
Length: 107’5"
Height: 18’6"
Weight: 170,000 Lbs

Reference and Further Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and Space Museum.

DAD, 11-11-01

Sailors aboard USS George Washington man the rails.
Flight to Washington
Image by Official U.S. Navy Imagery
HONG KONG (July 10, 2012) Sailors aboard the aircraft carrier USS George Washington (CVN 73) man the rails as the ship pulls into Hong Kong. Hong Kong is the second port visit for the aircraft carrier since it departed Fleet Activities Yokosuka on May 26 to begin its 2012 patrol. George Washington and its embarked air wing, Carrier Air Wing (CVW) 5, provide a combat-ready force that protects and defends the collective maritime interest of the U.S. and its allies and partners in the Asia-Pacific region. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Sean P. La Marr/Released)
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